Concept of Industrial Ecology Important MCQs

COMPETITIVE EXAM MCQs SERIES of ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE for UGC-NET/JRF, SLETARS, GATE, and other entrance tests – Environmental Biology – Concept of Industrial Ecology.

Syllabus Outline

  1. Concept of industrial ecology (e.g. Principles, practices, and challenges associated with industrial systems into ecological frameworks).
  2. Closed-loop systems, industrial symbiosis, life cycle assessment, eco-industrial parks, and the application of circular economy principles.
  3. By-product synergy, dematerialization, and the incorporation of cleaner production technologies.
  4. Industrial metabolism, biomimicry, and the role of information and communication technologies in fostering sustainable industrial practices.
  5. Eco-design, reverse logistics, and the polluter pays principle.
  6. Urban mining, green chemistry, and the use of data analytics in optimizing resource efficiency.

This quiz contains the concept-based most frequently asked 25 MCQs of “Environmental Biology – Concept of Industrial Ecology“. Each question has a single correct/most appropriate answer.


1. What is the primary purpose of implementing green supply chain management?

a) Focusing solely on cost reduction

b) Reducing production efficiency

c) Minimizing the environmental impacts of the entire supply chain

d) Ignoring supplier relationships

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2. What is the primary focus of Industrial Ecology?

a) Technological advancements in industrial processes

b) Analysis of global material and energy flows

c) Economic analysis of industrial sectors

d) Social impact assessment of industrial activities

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3. Which of the following is a key principle of Industrial Ecology?

a) Resource depletion

b) Single-use materials

c) Linear production processes

d) Closed-loop systems

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4. What is the concept of cascading utilization?

a) Resource hoarding

b) Unidirectional resource flow

c) Resource optimization

d) Sequential use of resources in multiple processes

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5. How does the adoption of sustainable procurement contribute to Industrial Ecology?

a) Promotes the selection of goods and services with lower environmental impacts

b) Shifts the focus from environmental considerations to cost reduction

c) Advocates for checked resource consumption

d) Encourages responsible sourcing practices

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6. Which of the following is a limitation of Life Cycle Assessment?

a) Lack of consideration for the end-of-life phase

b) Difficulty in quantifying resource use

c) Inability to assess environmental impacts

d) Comprehensive evaluation of economic impacts only

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7. How does the polluter pay principle adoption contribute to Industrial Ecology?

a) Shifts the financial burden of environmental impact to the responsible parties

b) Emphasizes planned obsolescence

c) Promotes resource depletion

d) Encourages industries to ignore environmental regulations

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8. What happens to the by-products generated during industrial processes in a closed-loop system?

a) Sold to external markets

b) Sent to landfills

c) Recycled and reused within the system

d) Discarded as waste

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9. How does the concept of industrial metabolism relate to Industrial Ecology?

a) Ignoring environmental impacts

b) Encouraging linear production processes

c) Focusing on individual industries’ profits

d) Analyzing material and energy flows in industrial systems

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10. What is the role of the circular economy in advancing the goals of Industrial Ecology?

a) Advocates for a restorative and regenerative economic model

b) Disregards the environmental impacts of production

c) Promotes linear production processes

d) Encourages excessive resource use

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11. What is a key feature of eco-industrial parks, that contributes to sustainable practices?

a) Isolated waste management facilities for each industry

b) Shared environmental impact assessment

c) Promoting linear resource utilization

d) Shared infrastructure and common waste treatment facilities

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12. How does the circular economy principle of design for disassembly contribute to sustainable manufacturing?

a) Promotes designing products for easy disassembly and recycling

b) Encourages complex and recyclable product designs

c) Ignores the end-of-life phase of products to facilitate disassembly on the unit

d) Encourages proprietary products and discourages collaboration among industries

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13. Which term is associated with managing waste as a resource in Industrial Ecology?

a) Waste Valorization

b) Waste Management

c) Waste Elimination

d) Waste Disposal

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14. What role does the concept of reverse logistics play in the context of Industrial Ecology?

a) Focusing solely on reverse movement of goods

b) Managing the return of products and materials in a closed-loop system

c) Promoting linear production processes

d) Ignoring waste management

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15. What is the primary focus of the Industrial Ecology?

a) Environmental sustainability

b) Social justice

c) Economic development

d) Technological innovation

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16. Which analytical tool identifies and evaluates the environmental burdens associated with a product system?

a) Ecological Footprint Analysis

b) Economic Impact Assessment

c) Life Cycle Assessment

d) Social Sustainability Analysis

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17. How does the concept of embodied energy contribute to understanding the environmental impact of products?

a) Accounts for the total energy consumed throughout a product’s life cycle

b) Focuses solely on renewable energy sources

c) Measures energy consumption during product use

d) Excludes energy considerations from product evaluation

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18. What is the primary purpose of the Life Cycle Design framework?

a) Minimizing product performance

b) Maximizing production efficiency

c) Integrating environmental considerations into product design

d) Ignoring cost and legal requirements in product design

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19. What is a challenge associated with industrial systems integration into ecological frameworks?

a) Overemphasis on resource depletion

b) Difficulty in optimizing resource utilization

c) Ignoring the principles of industrial ecology

d) Lack of collaboration among industries

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20. How does the environmental Kuznets curve relate to industrial development?

a) Suggests that environmental degradation initially increases but then decreases as industrialization progresses

b) Argues that environmental degradation decreases linearly with industrial growth

c) Advocates for unrestricted industrial growth

d) Argues that environmental degradation increases linearly with industrial growth

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21. Which of the following is the emphasis on waste in a closed-loop industrial process?

a) Efficient linear waste flow without interrupting product production

b) Maximizing waste generation

c) Efficient management and reduction of waste

d) Efficient waste reduction and disposal

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22. How does the concept of biomimicry contribute to sustainable industrial practices in Industrial Ecology?

a) Disregards the importance of biodiversity in industrial design

b) Promotes resource-intensive manufacturing in industrial design

c) Advocates for ignoring natural processes in industrial design

d) Encourages mimicking natural systems and processes in industrial design

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23. What is the primary objective of Industrial Ecology?

a) Minimizing waste and resource use

b) Maximizing profits

c) Reducing employee turnover

d) Expanding market share

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24. Which of the following is a key challenge in implementing Industrial Ecology principles?

a) Increased resource efficiency

b) Emphasis on linear production processes

c) Integration of diverse industries

d) Lack of government regulations

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25. What is the key principle of industrial ecology that emphasizes minimizing waste and optimizing resource utilization through industrial collaborations?

a) Resource hoarding

b) Linear production

c) Industrial symbiosis

d) Closed-loop systems

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  1. Ayres, Robert U., and Ayres, Leslie W. (2002) A Handbook of Industrial Ecology, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2nd edition.
  2. Graedel, T. E., and Allenby, Braden R. (2009) Industrial Ecology and Sustainable Engineering, Prentice Hall, 1st edition.
  3. Sharma, P. D., and Jha, R. (2017) Environmental Biology, Rastogi Publications, 1st edition.
  4. Bhattacharya, A. K. (2010) Industrial Ecology and Environmental Management, Prentice Hall of India, 1st edition.
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