Transitional expression to establish logical relationships

Often research articles are rejected by the editorial board of the research journal due to a lack of logical relationship in the writing. Connecting the sentences and paragraphs is highly crucial to link the subject of discussion to a specific topic. To establish the logical relationship it is crucial to use proper transitional expression words or phrases. Before writing any research content it is important to understand the transitional expression since each word or phrase of the same logical function has a slight difference in meaning and use. To decrease plagiarism often synonyms words or phrases are used during the rephrasing of sentences without understanding the meaning of it. Further, it can be noted that if all the synonyms words and phrases have the same meaning then why it has been added to the dictionary?

Logical Relationship

1. Evidence or Additional Support

To show additional support to the discussion following transitional expression can be useful with the consideration of the meaning.

Word / PhraseMeaning / UseExample
AdditionallyIn addition to something already mentionedThe resources of Calcium in drinking water may additionally be derived from various natural sources.
AgainOnce more / another timeSamples were again mixed to homogenize.
AlsoIn addition / tooThe diffusional limitation also affects the physiological activity of cells entrapped in the matrix.
AndPlus / also / in addition toDissolved Calcium and Magnesium salts are majorly responsible for the hardness of the water.
As wellWith equal reason / equal resultThe present study area is a metropolitan city as well as a center for industrial activities.
BesidesIn addition to / apart fromThe developed AI model is the best-fitted and acceptable method. Besides, it predicts the most accurate values.
Equally importantAs important as each otherForest resources are equally important as industrialization for the development of the nation.
FurtherMore / to a greater degree, distance, time & spaceFurther (time) studies are required to understand the environmental impact of the product before the field-scale application.
FurthermoreAn additional point to make in an argument & explanationFurthermore, the results of PCR amplification provided the confirmation of viruses in the samples.
In additionAs an extra thingSecondary metabolites are degraded in addition to the targeted pollutants by the bacterial isolates.
MoreoverTo add another fact / also / in additionMoreover, the current investigation has opened a new research gap.
ThenAt that time / next / after thatThe sample was dried in an oven at 100°C. Then it was stored at room temperature.

2. Effect or Cause

Describing the effect and cause of the phenomenon following transitional expression can be highly useful in research writing.

Word / PhraseMeaning / UseExample
AccordinglyIn a way that is suitable / for that reasonThe growth of microorganisms was increased by 20% and the rate of biodegradation was accordingly increased.
ConsequentlyWith the purpose that / so thatPhthalate esters are widely used in consumer products, and consequently, these pollutants are detected from all environmental compartments.
HenceFor this reason / that is the reason or explanationA mixture of phthalate esters is reported from environmental compartments. Hence, in the current study mixture of phthalate esters was used.
SoWith the purpose that / in order thatGenerally, the ‘so‘ word is not recommended in the research write-up due to its multiple meanings and non-specific. It can be replaced with because, therefore, also, thus, then, etc depending upon the situation.
ThereforeAs a result / because of that / for that reasonPhthalate esters are toxic and widely reported plasticizers. Therefore, it has been recognized as a criteria pollutant by US EPA
ThusLike this / in this way / that manner or wayPhthalate esters are not chemically bonded with polymeric materials. Thus, there may be a constant releasing PAEs from polymers into the environment.

3. Conclusion or Summary

The conclusion or summary of the results is highly crucial in the research articles since it is read maximum after the title. To increase the impact of research following transitional expression will be useful to write conclusions or discussion.

Word / PhraseMeaning / Use forExample
FinallyAfter a long time or delay / last in a list of thingsFinally, a vaccine against coronaviruses was developed and found to be effective.
BrieflyLasting a short time / concise or brief wayThis section briefly describes how climate change is linked with urbanization and industrialization
In a wordA summary of already presented content / Shortest answer possibleIn a word, the isolated microbe has a high potential to degrade the pollutant.
In briefConcisely / in few words / to sum upIn brief, the selection of polymeric products is based on the environmental fate and transport along with their utility.
In conclusionFinally / lastly / to sum things upIn conclusion, the selection of transitional words or phrases in research communication is highly crucial to express the research.
In sumbecause of/as a result of this / like this / in this wayIn sum, experiments with newly isolated microorganisms showed a contrast in metabolic diversity.
In summaryA brief statement of the most important information / in shortIn summary, transitional words are critical in the expression of research.
In the endAfter everything is considered or discussedbecause of/as a result of this / like this / in this way
In the final analysisExpresses the basic truth about a complex situation / after considering everythingIn the final analysis, microbial biofilms were identified and observed to be highly diverse.
On the wholeGenerally / but not true in every casePhthalate esters are present on the whole surface of environmental compartments.
Thusbecause of / as a result of this / like this / in this wayThus, analysis and regular monitoring of phthalate esters are crucial for health risk assessment.
To concludeTo end / to bring something to an endTherefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that the isolated microbe has significant potential to remediate pollution on site.
To sum upTo give a summary / bring to a totalPresent study computed water quality indexes to sum up the properties of water resources.
To summarizeExpress the most important factsTo summarize, the appropriate use of transitional expressions is a key tool in research writing.

4. Emphasis

To emphasize the results and discussion for seeking attention and the special importance of findings is highly crucial while writing the research article. Following transitional expression could be highly useful to establish a logical correlation for the same.

Word / PhraseMeaning / Use forExample
EvenEmphasizing something that is surprising / to make the comparison strongerThe high pollution level was observed even when industrial activities were shut down.
IndeedTruly / certainlyIndeed, most people are not aware of the current environmental problems.
In factReally / in truth / by the factIn fact, many people don’t spare time to know about environmental issues even though it has a direct health impact.
Of courseNaturally / certainlyOf course, human has a high phthalate exposure risk since it has been widely present in the environmental compartment.
TrulyIn truth / really / by factThe author is truly grateful to the funding agency for their financial support.

5. Example

To explain or support the statement or results it’s important to mention the related contents and link it with transitional expression to establish a logical relationship. To achieve the same following words or phrases would be highly useful.

Word / PhraseMeaning / Use forExample
For exampleTo mention something as the explanationPollutants are increasing over time along with industrialization. For example, phthalate esters occur at measurable levels in environmental compartments due to more production and usage.
For instanceIllustration to support/clarify a point.Several countries in the world have clear guidelines to regulate the use of phthalate esters, for instance, France, Germany, China, and Canada.
NamelyTo be specific/precise informationPhthalate esters have been widely detected in environmental compartments, namely air, water, and soil.
SpecificallySpecific manner / in a definite and exact way / with precisionPAEs adversely impact the reproductive health of humans, specifically DBP.
To illustrateTo make clear / explainThe study aims to illustrate the proper use of transitional expressions to communicate properly.

6. Exception or Contrast

Similarity as well as contrast is important to discuss the status of findings. The following transitional expression can help to establish a logical correlation with exceptions as per the situation.

Word / PhraseMeaning / Use forExample
ButDespite that / happening but could have been stopped/referring to an amountPAEs are degraded over time. But some of the PAEs are persistent due to unfavorable conditions for microbial action.
HoweverTo add a comment to just saidAI is added advantage for the scientific community. However, it may affect human resources adversely.
In spite of/despiteSomething unpleasant/bad happening / notwithstandingPAEs have been often found in soft plastic toys despite the restriction implemented by various nations.
On the one handTo introduce multiple contrast statements (1st)Two independent research were conducted to understand the impact of PAEs. On the one hand, the concentration of PAEs in the environmental compartment was estimated. On the other hand, the toxicity of PAEs was estimated.
On the other handTo introduce multiple contrast statements (2nd)Several independent research was conducted to understand the impact of PAEs. On the one hand, the concentration of PAEs in the environmental compartment was estimated. On the other hand, the toxicity of PAEs was estimated.
Nevertheless (Never + the + less)Some people think that AI is making us less social, but on the contrary, it’s helping us in many ways.Environmental pollution is increasing throughout the world. Nevertheless, people’s life expectancy is increasing with clinical development and awareness.
Nonetheless (None + the + less)Despite this fact / referring to an actionMany research writing guidelines are getting published online. Nonetheless are useful and concise.
NotwithstandingDespite something / used after its objectPAEs were found in the environmental samples, notwithstanding the restrictions imposed.
In contrastVery different from it / second thing very different from firstIn contrast to the previous year, this year’s rainfall has increased by 20%.
On the contraryOpposite and true of one already statedRemaining in place or at rest / motionless/stationary
StillUp to now / despite thatWhile there has been some progress in reducing carbon emissions, the levels are still too high to meet the targets set by the Paris Agreement.
YetUp to now / in spite of thatAlthough several theories have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, none have yet been able to fully account for all the observed data.

7. Place or Position

To cite the place and positions of something, it is important to use the proper transitional expression to establish a logical explanation for the research and make it self-explanatory for readers.

Word / PhraseMeaning / Use forExample
AboveIn a higher place /
in an earlier part
The above transitional words or phrases along with their meaning are highly helpful in research writing.
AdjacentNext to / close toThe fires had spread to the adjacent forested areas, resulting in significant damage to the ecological services.
BelowTo a lower positionThe result indicated that the levels of contaminants in the water are below acceptable limits.
BeyondTo another side / further than / later thanThe effectiveness of water treatment decreases beyond a certain limit of coagulant doses.
HereBehind/in an area at the back of somethingThe microbial community here is diverse and complex which plays a key role in nutrient cycling.
In FrontFurther forward / aheadThe trees in front of the building provide shade and reduce the heat island effect in the urban environment.
In BackNot far away in the distanceThe forest in the back of the building provides cool brize and reduces the heat island effect in the urban environment.
NearbyIn/at/to that placeThe trees nearby of the building provide shade and reduce the heat island effect in the urban environment.
ThereIn / at / to that placeThere are variable guidelines available to write research articles.

8. Order or Sequence

Putting the thought or events in a proper sequence is important to explain the idea. The following words or phrases will be helpful to order in a sequence and connect it.

Word / PhraseMeaning / Use forExample
FirstBefore all others / not happened beforeFirst, the data required for the study were retrieved from the database.
SecondThings after firstSecond, the data were organized as per the requirement.
ThirdThings after secondThird, the tabulated data were imported into QGIS to extract the information of the required area.
NextImmediately afterNext, the values were interpolated using IWD methods for the required area.
ThenAt that time / after thatThen, obtained results were compared with ground data.
FinallyLast in a list / at the endFinally, the thematic maps were generated to visualize the impact.

9. Similarity

Contrast as well as similarity is important to discuss the status of findings. The following transitional expression can help to establish logical relations for similarity as per the situation.

Word / PhraseMeaning / Use forExample
AlsoIn the same way / similar wayGreenhouse gases were observed to be higher as compared to last year. The results also confirm the presence of higher air pollutants than last year.
In the same wayComparison with strong similarityPAEs were extracted from soil samples using the solid-liquid extraction method in the same way as toy samples.
Just asEqual degreeJust as research novelty is an important criterion, a transitional expression in writing is crucial to publish a research article.
LikewiseThe extraction cartridge was washed with nitric acid to remove adsorbed PAEs before analysis. Likewise, all glassware was washed.The connection between the two situations
SimilarlyNearly same wayJust as the Moon revolves around the Earth, similarly, the Earth revolves around the Sun.
So tooConnection between two situationsWater pollution has a significant negative impact on human health and so too does air pollution.

10. Time

Putting the events in a proper sequence as per the time is important to explain the process. The following words or phrases will be helpful to express the time of events concerning others.

Word / PhraseMeaning / Use forExample
AfterLater than / next in timeAfter the flood, several health issues were noted.
AfterwardAt the present time / immediatelyGenerally, pesticides accumulate and then begin to degrade slowly afterward.
At lastAt the end / after a long timePlastics are used extensively and restricted at last.
BeforeEarlier thanGenerally, environmental samples are dynamic and analyzed before it gets changed.
CurrentlyAt present / at the momentCurrently, India is organizing many events under the G20 presidency.
DuringWithin the periodDuring the investigation, a total of five human health-affecting parameters have been identified.
EarlierBefore the beginning of a particular periodIn the earlier study, a total of four human health-affecting parameters have been identified
ImmediatelyWithout delay / very closelyThe samples were analyzed immediately as received.
LaterAfter a reference time / a comparative of lateGenerally, pollutants were decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic lead restriction. Later, pollutants are increased as earlier.
MeanwhileDuring the time between two things happeningPollutants are introduced into the river. Meanwhile, some of the pollutants get degraded over time
NowLater / after sometimeNow, it’s high time to consider sustainable technology and lifestyle.
RecentlyNot long ago / recent periodRecently, many PAEs have been detected in food and drinking beverages in China.
SimultaneouslyOccurring at the same time / at the same timeAn isolated microbe has the potential to degrade both pollutants simultaneously.
SubsequentlyLater in time / after sometimeThese results were subsequently used to calculate the total impact.
ThenNext / after thatSecondary metabolites of the pollutants are detected and then degraded over time.


The guidelines to use the proper transitional expression to establish logical relationships will be useful to develop scientific writing skills since each word or phrase of the same logical function has a slight difference in meaning. Therefore, before using the transitional expression, it is important to know its meaning and purpose.

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